Monday, 21 May 2012

BUNGA MELATI


The name jasmine comes from the Persian word "yasmin," which means "fragrant flower." The name Jasmine is also used as a girl's name, meaning "God's gift." The scientific name is Jasminum Officinale.

There are different varieties, and each type of jasmine is associated with different meanings.

~  The white, or Indian, jasmine symbolizes attachment and sensuality. The white flower of jasmine can also represent amiability and modesty. 

~  Yellow jasmine is associated with grace and elegance

~  Spanish jasmine also represents sensuality.

In India, jasmine flowers are given as religious offerings as a symbol of divine hope, and the flowers are sometimes used in religious ceremonies.

The Benefits of Jasmine Flowers

Jasmine is beneficial to health because of nerol, benzyl acetate, linalool, benzoic acid, geraniol and eugenol.


~  Anti-Depressant
The most obvious use for jasmine is for its scent, whether in landscapes and gardens or in perfumes. Women of various southeast Asian cultures use the flowers in their hair for their beautiful fragrance. Jasmine scent has a pleasing effect on the mind, ultimately fighting depression. The scent makes one alert and happy.


~  Aphrodisiac
Jasmine oil that derives from jasmine flowers makes one feel romantic and enhances one's libido. It is also used to treat impotency, premature ejaculation and frigidity.


~  Anti-Spasmodic
Another benefit of jasmine oil is relaxing to muscle spasms. It can also help give relief for respiratory problems, cramps and congestion.

~  Parturient
Jasmine oil can be used during birth to ease the pain of labor. This is a natural method compared with drugs offered during labor.

~  Sedative
Jasmine is calming so it can be used as a sedative. The oils and teas relieve anger, depression, anxiety and stress, allowing one to rest well.

~  Anti-Septic
Jasmine can be used as a disinfectant and anti-septic. The benzoic acid, benzyl benzoate and benzaldehyde work well as bactericidal, germicidal, anti-viral and fungicide.


~  In China, jasmine has been used for tea for centuries, and some cultures believe drinking jasmine tea daily can prevent diseases such as cancer. 

~  In aromatherapy, jasmine is thought to be an antidepressant and to promote relaxation while helping with fatigue and tension. The scent is often used in incenses and massage oils, and some cultures believe when jasmine is burned or worn, it will attract spiritual love, wealth, money and prophetic dreams.

Interesting Fact

Jasmine flowers grow in warm climates and open at night, releasing a jasmine fragrance. The scent of the jasmine flower is most potent at night, when it releases its scent into the cooler night air.





Common jasmine is also known by its scientific name Jasminum officinale, which are members of the Oleaceae family. Reaching heights of 20 to 30 feet, common jasmine is a seasonal bloomer. Common jasmine is often used in container plantings or pruned into an outdoor hedge. 

Confederate jasmine is also known by its scientific name Trachelospermum jasminoides. Considered one of the most fragrant plants for home gardens, confederate jasmine is not a true jasmine. Confederate jasmine grows best on steep banks, as ground cover or on a trellis or wall.

Effects

According to the Missouri Botanical Garden, common jasmine is so sweet and fragrant, even a single vine can envelop the entire yard or garden in fragrance. Common jasmine produces flowers in shades of white or pale pink that have a sharp, sweet smell. Confederate jasmine is characterized by lush, glossy green foliage and white blooms that smell similar to nutmeg.


Culture

All jasmines grow best in full sun and in fertile soil. Jasmines require water during the hot months of summer, especially while they are getting started. Common jasmine can be grown as a vine or pruned into a hedge. Confederate jasmine will climb on a trellis or wall, up to about 20 feet. Without support, it makes an excellent ground cover. Jasmines are typically low-maintenance but are susceptible to whiteflies, mealybugs and scale insects.

Considerations

Common jasmine and confederate jasmine are both aromatic, fragrant evergreens that are a lovely addition to any home garden. Not all jasmines are fragrant, such as dwarf jasmine which produces yellow flowers that are unscented. Another jasmine, known as primrose jasmine, produces its unscented bright yellow flowers during the winter months.





Does Jasmine Need to Be Pruned?

Prune jasmine after the flowers fade. Jasmine plants are known for their sweet-smelling blossoms. However, not every jasmine is fragrant, and some plants called jasmine don't even belong to the Jasminum family. These include star jasmine, Asian star jasmine and Carolina jessamine. However, all of these plants benefit from pruning to remove damaged stems, control size and shape and stimulate new growth.


Pruning Tips

Always use sharp pruning shears to make clean cuts, and sterilize any tools used to remove diseased sections before using again to prevent spreading the problem. Trim any dead, frail or diseased vines back to the healthy part of the vine, and prune off crossing or intrusive vines back to the main stem or just beneath the point of interference. Severe pruning for renovating any overgrown plant requires cutting the jasmine plant down to 2 feet.

Pruning Summer Jasmine

Prune summer jasmine, such as the common white or poet's jasmine, showy jasmine and star jasmine, at the end of summer or beginning of fall, shortly after flowering. These jasmine plants produce flowers on last year's growth, but some will bloom again later in the season on the tips of new shoots. These jasmines grow as spreading shrubs, flowering groundcovers or trained-on supports.


Pruning Jasmine Groundcover

Most jasmine plants work well as groundcovers with their spreading growth pattern, but the Asian star jasmine is a quick-growing and tough plant that often grows as a groundcover. No matter what type of jasmine you grow as groundcover, they all benefit from trimming off upright growing stems and a severe pruning every two to three years. Use a rotary lawn mower, or hand-cut jasmine groundcover plants back 4 to 6 inches.



Maid of Orleans flower are used in Hawaiian leis.

The Maid of Orleans jasmine is native to India, and is one of the most commonly cultivated jasmines in the world. It is easy to grow either outdoors or indoors as a potted plant. This jasmine variety is low-maintenance, but does require pruning for size control. A flowering Maid of Orleans jasmine will produce small white blooms that are round in shape and last only last 24 hours. As the blossoms fall off, the plant immediately replaces them. 

1  -   Keep the plant in a spot that gets partial sun, which is four to six hours daily. For indoor plants, a window sill is appropriate if the plant is small enough.

2  -  Let the soil dry out slightly between watering. When it is dry to the touch, water the plant thoroughly until water comes out of the drainage holes in the bottom of the pot. For outdoor plants, water until the soil is moist 4 to 6 inches below the soil surface.

3  -  Keep air circulating around flowering indoor jasmine plants. As the flower plant drops blossoms, rake them up or pick them up by hand and dispose of them to prevent insect infestation or the spread of disease.

4  -  Wait until the plant stops flowering to being pruning because the pruning process will encourage the Maid of Orleans to produce more flowers. Use gardening shears to cut off any dead or damaged branches, then cut back any branches that are growing too large for the space allotted for the plant.




How to Plant Jasmine

Jasmine is a beautiful flowering vine that can also be trained to grow as a bush. It is a aromatic addition to any garden. However, planting it does take some careful planning so that it doesn't encroach or destroy anything else in your garden. Here are a few steps on how to plant the sensational smelling jasmine in your garden at home!

1  -  Locate an area in your yard. The good news is that jasmine will tolerate an array of soils. Everything from sandy to clay. But the tough thing is that jasmine prefers as much sun and little shade as possible. If your yard is thick with trees, you may have to do a bit of trimming before planting jasmine.

2  -  Purchase jasmine from your local nursery. Visit your local nursery and describe to them the area you are trying to grow jasmine in. They will advise you of how many plants you'll need. Remember over time one jasmine vine can grow quite large, so you may only need a few plants to cover a large area. Also describe to the associates at the nursery if you plan to trim the jasmine as a shrub or if you want it to grow in vine form, as this will also make a difference.

3  -  Dig holes. When digging the holes for jasmine, be sure that they are placed at least eight feet apart. This sounds like quite a distance, but over time you'll see how beautifully jasmine spreads after you plant it in your graden. The holes should be equivalent to the pots you purchased the jasmine in. Usually this will be between 3 to 6 inches.

4  -  Plant jasmine! Remove the jasmine from the pots and plant it in the previously dug holes. Cover with soil. Be careful not to "choke" the plant by covering it with too much soil at the base.

Tips & Warnings

1  -  Keep soil moist for optimal growth. 

2  -  If you are concerned about drainage, mulch the soil or add compost before planting. This will help ensure that the soil does not hold too much water.

3  -  Consider planting jasmine under a window. That way its beautiful smell can be enjoyed inside as well as outside!







Nama Tempatan  : Bunga melur
Nama Saintifik    : Jasminum Sambac
Nama Lain          : bunga melati, arabian jasmin, jasmin, yasmin
Famili                  : Oleaceae

Bunga melur atau nama saintifiknya jasminum sambac terdir dari pelbagai variaties namun yang paling biasa dijumpai di negara kita adalah 3 jenis utama iaitu :

~ duke of tuscany
~ maid of orlean 
~  star jasmin. 

Maid of orlean dan duke of tuscany dikenali sebagai melur susun di negara kita. Bezanya duke of tuscany mempunyai lapisan yang lebih banyak dan saiz dan bentuknya menyerupai bunga ros mini, tapi baunya tidak sekuat maid of orlean dan bunga melur selapis yang biasa.

Tumbuhan ini memerlukan cahaya matari yang secukupnya untuk tumbesaran dan pembungaan. 

Medium yang sesuai adalah dari jenis kompos dan mempunyai pengaliran yang baik. Tumbuhan ini membiak secara keratan batang. Untuk menyemai, keratan batang yang agak tua direndam kedalam air suam dan ditanam kedalam tanah. Pastikan airnya mencukupi untuk pertumbuhan akarnya.Tunas baru akan muncul selepas lebih kurang 6 minggu. Bunganya berbau sangat harum dan mekar sepanjang tahun. ketinggian yang paling sesuai untuk tanaman ini adalah 800 meter dari aras laut, namun di Malaysia ia didapati dapat menyesuaikan diri untuk semua ketinggian.

Kegunaan:

~  Bunga melur banyak digunakan dalam perubatan terutamanya dalam perubatan ayurveda oleh masyarakat india. 

~  Bagi masyarakat melayu antara kegunaanya ialah untuk menambahkan air susu ibu. Caranya daun bunga melur digilig hingga halus dan ditampal sekeliling payudara di waktu pagi sebelum mandi. Cuci bersih sebelum menyusukan bayi.

~  Untuk sakit mata(mata merah) segenggam daunnya ditubuk halus dan ditampal pada dahi. setelah kering , tampal yang lain pula.Ulang hingga berasa sedikir lega(sembuh).

~ Untuk mengubat bengkak dari gigitan lebah, segenggam bunganya diramas hingga hancur dan ditampal pada bahagian yang terkena sengatan itu.

~  Untuk demam dan sakit kepala segenggam daun dan bunganya diramas dalam air dan airnya digunakan untuk membasahkan dahi.

~  Untuk sesak nafas pula, 20 helai daunnya di rebus dengan secubit garam hingga mendidih, tapis dan minum airnya.

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